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BioDiversitySearch > Resources > National Legislation

National legislation related to nature conservation in Lebanon

  • The Forest Code (Law 85, 12/9/1991), amended by the Parliament in 1996 (Law 558, 24/7/96) stipulates that all cedar, fir and juniper forests, and “other coniferous forests” in Lebanon are protected in facto.
  • Ministerial decision issued by the Ministry of Agriculture prohibiting the import and introduction of all cedar seeds and plants (Decision 108/1, 12/9/1995)
  • Ministerial decision issued by the Ministry of Agriculture which regulates the export of all medicinal and aromatic plants (Decision 92/1, 28/2/1996)
  • Ministerial decision issued by the Ministry of Agriculture prohibiting the picking and export of ferrula plant & roots (Decision 177/1)
  • Ministerial decision issued by the Ministry of Agriculture regulating the harvesting of oregano and salvia (Decision 340/1, 1/8/1996)
  • Laws establishing nature reserves. Presently, there are seven nature reserves in Lebanon established by law and one declared by ministerial decision:

                      o Law 121-92: Establishment of Palm Islands Nature Reserve
                      o Law 121-92: Establishment of Horsh Ehden Nature Reserveo 
                      o Law 532-96: Establishment of Shouf Cedars Nature Reserveo 
                      o Law 708-98: Establishment of Tyre Coast Nature Reserveo 
                      o Law 11-99: Establishment of Bentael Nature Reserveo
                      o Law 10-99: Establishment of Yammouni Nature Reserveo 
                      o Law 9- 99: Establishment of Tannourine Cedars Nature Reserveo 
                      o Decision 14/1 95: Establishment of Karm Chbat Nature Reserve

  • The Law for the Protection of the Environment (Law 444, 8/8/2002) put the general framework for the protection of the environment in Lebanon. Articles 47-48 call for the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity, the establishment of nature reserves and for regulating access to genetic resources.
  • An amended hunting law, modifying and updating the hunting law of 1952 (law no 580, 25/2/2004). The new hunting law regulates hunting practices, calls for defining an annual hunting season and period within the season and for defining prey, birds and animals as wild, resident or migratory which are considered protected all year long, and states that threatened and rare species must be defined and prohibited for hunting.
  •  Ministerial decisions by the Ministry of Environment declaring natural sites and river mouths under the protection of the Ministry of Environment.

Other major legislative steps taken by the Lebanese government for the protection and proper use of environmental resources

Adapted from the MoE website

Agriculture-dry land Arab Center for Studies in arid regions (ACSAD) Land ,water, flora & Fauna Law 27/71 1971
Agriculture International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry areas (ICARDA) Arid land research Law 124 1977
Agriculture Arab Organization for Agricultural development (AOAD) Agricultural development Law 11/83 1983
World Fund for Agricultural development (IFAD) Agricultural development Law 150 1977
Agriculture Mediterranean Higher Education (CIHEAM)* Agricultural education Law 171 1922
Flora and Fauna
* Hunting
Ministry of Agriculture Regulations, permits (season, nests, eggs, young birds) 297/1 1952
Hunting Council-Ministry of Interior Breeding of birds & animals to release in nature 8337 1974
  Hunting banned for 3 years from 1/1/95 until 2000 1/7 1994
Fishing Regulations Prohibition of fishing in ports and using material to anesthetize, poison fish or pollute water 1104 1921
    Fresh water fishing regulations 1490 1990
    Norms for fish, protection of eggs and grasses for birds, ban explosive and anesthetics use for fishing 89

Nature Protection : Ministry of agriculture
Ministry of Environment
Protected areas: 10 reserves declared by legislation   1987-92
* Reserves Three reserves declared by law 121-127 1992-1991
* Forests Ministry of Agriculture Forest code 149 1949
* Sea Shores French Ruler 12 miles coast, public maritime domain
Safeguard coast sand & other material extraction
  Ministry of Transport or Council of Ministers 1966
Sites Ministry of Interior Natural protected areas :
Bologne, Baalbak, Cedar Nahr-Laban bridge, etc..
434/1943 1939
Ministry of Environment Establishment of the Ministry of Environment 216 1993
Fresh Water pollution French Ruler Protection and use of public water (lakes, rivers, underground water, waterfalls and riverbanks) 144 1925
Ministry of Hydroelectrical resources Protected zones around the water source 10276 1962
Digging of wells, depth less than 150m 14438 1970
Marine pollution London Congress Hydrocarbon pollutants 66/67 1966
Brussels- 1968 Hydrocarbon pollutants 9226 1974
Convention of 1976,1978 Hydrocarbon pollutants 18/83 1983
Barcelona 1976 Protection of the sea 292 1994
Vienna 1980 Protection of the sea from land 292 1994
Geneva 1982 Protected areas 292 1994
Sea Law (united Nations) Legislation 295 1994
Various types of pollution :
solid & liquid wastes
Sewage treatment, septic tanks, industrial waters( purified before disposal) 974 1974
Hazardous substances Penalties on violation of norms for specific tanks, industrial water, sewage treatment
Penalties up to hard labor & death


Chemical products (pesticides and fertilisers) Ministry of Agriculture Regulations on production, sale, and use of these products 11/78 1978
Classified Installation :
French regime Classified in terms of risk to human environment 1120 1936
Cabinet Refine the draft of the above 1120 7558 1961
Quarries Cabinet Regulates exploitation of stone & sand quarries subject to analysis by a national commission 7616 1994
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